Notes and Records of the Royal Society

    It is widely believed that Charles Darwin avoided publishing his theory of evolution for many years. Many explanations have been proposed to identify Darwin's reasons or motives for doing so. This essay demonstrates that Darwin's delay is a recent historiographical theme for which there is no clear evidence, and indeed is overwhelmingly contradicted by the historical evidence. It is also shown that Darwin's belief in evolution was not a secret before publication. Instead of a man afraid of his secret theory's being revealed to his prejudiced contemporaries, it is demonstrated that Darwin was understandably very busy and began his species book when he had completed work in hand, just as he had intended all along. This essay therefore rewrites a fundamental chapter in the story of Darwin's life and work as usually told.

    References

    Notes

    • 1 Mayr, E. . The growth of biological thought 1982 Belknap Press 420.
    • 2 Desmond, A., Foreword, & Ospovat, D. The development of Darwin's theory 1994 Cambridge University Press xi.
    • 3 Ruse, M. The Darwinian revolution 1979 University of Chicago Press. Mayr, op. cit. (note 1).
    • 4 Sulloway, F. J. Darwin and his finches: the evolution of a legend. J. Hist. Biol. 15 1982 1-53 (1). Sulloway, The Beagle collections of Darwin's finches. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zoo 43 1982 49-94.
    • 5See, for exampleDarwin, Charles Memorial notices, reprinted from Nature 1882 Macmillan & Co London.Carpenter, W. B. Charles Darwin: his life and work. Mod. Rev. 3 1882 500-524.Darwin, Charles The Times 1882 Apirl 21.Bacon, G. W. The life of Charles Darwin 1883 G. W. Bacon & Co. London ca.Miall, L. C. . The life and work of Charles Darwin 1883 Jackson, Leeds,.Wallace, A. R. The debt of science to Darwin. Century Mag. 25 1883 420-432.Miall, L. C. History of biology 1911 Watts & Co., London.Woodall, E. Charles Darwin 1884 Trübner London.Cunningham, J. T. Charles Darwin, naturalist 1886 William Brown Edinburgh.Allen, G. Charles Darwin Longmans London.Bettany, G. T. Life of Charles Darwin 1887 Walter Scott London.Aveling, E. Darwin made easy 1887 Progressive Publishing London.Darwin, F. Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882). Dictionary of National Biography 14 1888 72-84.Huxley, T. H. Obituary notices of fellows deceased. Charles Robert Darwin. Proc. R. Soc. 44 1888 i-xxiv.Osborn, H. F. From the Greeks to Darwin 1894 Macmillan & Co., New York.Parkyn, E. A. Darwin: his work and influence 1894 Methuen London.Wallace, A. R. The dawn of a great discovery: My relations with Darwin in reference to the theory of natural selection. Black and White 25 1903 78-79.Williams, E. A history of science 1904 Harper New York (5 volumes).Wallace, A. R. A man of the time: Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace and his coming autobiography. Book Monthly 1905 May 545-548.Wallace, A. R. The centenary of Darwin. Clarion, no. 897 1909 5.Wallace, A. R. Acceptance speech on receiving the Darwin–Wallace Medal. The Darwin–Wallace Celebration 1909 5-11.Seward, A. C. Darwin and modern science 1909 Cambridge University Press.Poulton, E. Fifty years of Darwinism 1909 Holt New York.Judd, J. W. The coming of evolution 1910 Cambridge University Press.Marchant, J. . Alfred Russel Wallace 1916 Cassell London (2 volumes).Rádl, The history of biological theories 1930 Oxford University Press.
    • 6SeeDarwin, F. The life and letters of Charles Darwin 1887 Murray London (3 volumes).Darwin, F.& Seward, A. C. More letters of Charles Darwin 1903 Murray London (2 volumes).Darwin, F. Charles Robert Darwin. in Dictionary of National Biography 1888 According to the account given here, avoiding publication is unimaginable.See alsoDarwin, F. Charles Darwin 1892 Murray London.
    • 7Barlow, N. Charles Darwin's diary of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle 1933 Cambridge University Press.Barlow, N. . Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle 1945 Pilot Press London.
    • 8Clark, R. E. D. Darwin: before and after: the story of evolution 1948 Paternoster Press London 56-57 I am grateful to James Moore for bringing this source to my attention and lending me a copy.
    • 9Shull, A. F. Evolution 1951 McGraw–Hill London.
    • 10Shull, A. F. et al. A book that shook the world 1958 University of Pittsburgh Press vi.
    • 11Gillispie, C. C. The edge of objectivity 1960 Princeton University Press 312.
    • 12Beer, G. de, Rowlands, M. J.& Skramovsky, B. M. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Hist. Ser.) 2 1960 23-73 ibid., 2(3), 75–118 (1960); ibid., 2(4), 119–150 (1960); ibid., 2(5), 151–183 (1960); ibid., 2(6), 185–200; ibid., 3(5), 129–176 (1967).
    • 13Vorzimmer, P. J. Darwin's questions about the breeding of animals (1839). J. Hist. Biol. 2 1969 269-281.See alsoVorzimmer Charles Darwin–the years of controversy 1972 University ofLondon Press 4.
    • 14Ghiselin, M. T. The triumph of the Darwinian method 1969 University of California Press Berkeley 47-48.
    • 15Gruber, H. Darwin on man: a psychological study of scientific creativity 1974 Wildwood London.
    • 16Gruber, op. cit. xiv-44 (note 15).
    • 17Eisley, L. Darwin and the mysterious Mr X 1979 Dent London.Moore, J. The post–Darwinian controversies 1979 Cambridge University Press.Bonner, J. T. Introduction. to Darwin, The descent of man 1981 Princeton University Press.Mayr op. cit. (note 1).Rudwick, M. J. S. The meaning of fossils 1985 University of Chicago Press 2nd edn.Hardin, G. Cultural carrying capacity. Focus 2 (1992).Desmond, A.& Moore, J. Darwin 1992 Penguin London.
    • 18Gruber, op. cit. 4-43 (note 15).SeeBarrett, P. H. et al.,Charles Darwin–s notebooks, 1836–1844 (British Museum (Natural History) 1987 Cornell University Press Cambridge and New York Notebook M143.
    • 19Barrett et al., op. cit. 556 (note 18).
    • 20 Schweber, S. The origin of the Origin revisited. J. Hist. Biol. 10 1977 229-316.
    • 21Gould, S. J. . Ever since Darwin 1977 Penguin London 21-27.
    • 22Gould op. cit. 23 (note 21).
    • 23Colp, R. To be an invalid: the illness of Charles Darwin 1977 University of Chicago Press 17.
    • 24Herbert, S. The place of man in the development of Darwin's theory of transmutation, part II. J. Hist. Biol. 70 1977 155-227 at p. 190.See alsoRudwick, M. J. S. Charles Darwin in London: the integration of public and private science. Isis 73 1982 186-206 at p. 196.
    • 25See, for example Ruse op. cit. 184 (note 3).Richards Why Darwin delayed, or interesting problems and models in the history of science. J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 19 1983 45-53. Darwin, F. op. cit. 1 1887 347-348 (note 6).
    • 26Barlow, N. The autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809–1882 1958 Collins London 118.
    • 27Richards, op. cit. (note 25), p. 46. See also‘Darwin's delay’, pp. 152–156 in Richards, Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary theories of mind and behavior (University of Chicago Press, 1987).
    • 28 , (, ), p. .Desmond, A. The politics of evolution 1989 University of Chicago Press 408.
    • 29Desmond op. cit. 411-412 (note 28).
    • 30Desmond op. cit. 413 (note 28).
    • 31Desmond, A.& Moore, J. R. Darwin 1992 Penguin London 657-658.
    • 32Desmond and Moore, op. cit. (note 31), p. 307. See also Desmond and Moore, ‘Transgressing boundaries’, J. Victorian Culture 3, 147–168 (1998). They more recently summarized their views in the documentary Darwin: the life (BBC, 1998).
    • 33Desmond& Moore op. cit. 274 (note 31).
    • 34See, for exampleGribbin, J. & Gribbin, M. . Darwin in 90 minutes 1997 Constable London.Hands, G. Darwin: a beginner's guide 2001 Hodder London.Evolution: Darwin's dangerous idea 2001 Public Broadcasting Service.Cantor, G.& Shuttleworth, S. Science serialized 2004 MIT Press.
    • 35C. Gormlie (director), Genius: Charles Darwin–his life, journeys and discoveries (Cromwell Productions, 1999).
    • 36Desmond& Moore op. cit. 262-263(note 31).See alsoColp, R. Charles Darwin's dream of his double execution. J. Psychohist. 13 1986 277-292.
    • 37C. Darwin to J. Scott, 6 June 1863. F. Burkhardt et al. (eds), The correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge University Press, 1985–), vol. 11, p. 482, cited in P. Brent, Charles Darwin (Norton, London, 1981), p. 467. (Hereafter references to the Correspondence are given as CCD, with volume and page numbers separated by a colon.)
    • 38To G. Darwin, 21 Oct. 1873, DAR 210.1.1; cited in Desmond and Moore, op. cit. (note 31), p. 603. (All DAR numbers refer to the Darwin MSS, Cambridge University Library.)
    • 39Darwin, C. Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 24 1839 39-81.
    • 40Chambers, R. Vestiges of the natural history of creation 1844 John Churchill London.See for exampleClark op. cit. (note 8).Stauffer, R. C. On the origin of species, an unpublished version 1959 Macmillan New York.Olby, R. . Charles Darwin 1967 Oxford University Press.Burrow, J. W. Editor's introduction. & Darwin, C. Origin of species 1968 Penguin, Baltimore MD.Ruse op. cit. (note 3).Young, D. The discovery of evolution 1992 Cambridge University Press.Secord, J. Victorian sensation 2000 Chicago University Press.
    • 41I am grateful to James Secord (personal communication) for confirming this conclusion.
    • 42To C. Lyell, 8 Oct. [1845] CCD 3:258. [A. Sedgwick], ‘Natural history of creation’, Edinb. Rev. 82 ( July), 1–85 (1845).
    • 43See for example DAR 205.5.108–transcribed in CCD 3:109. Darwin's copy of the sixth edition of Vestiges (1847) is in the Darwin Library at The Cambridge University Library. His annotations are transcribed in M. Di Gregorio with N. Gill, Charles Darwin's marginalia (Garland, London, 1990), vol. 1, pp. 163–265.
    • 44Cannon, W. F. The Whewell–Darwin controversy. J. Geol. Soc. 132 1976 377-384 p. 383.
    • 45J. Carroll, ‘Introduction’, in C. Darwin, On the origin of species (Broadview Press, Peterborough, ON, 2003), at p. 46.
    • 46Browne, J. Charles Darwin 2002 Jonathan Cape London.and especiallyBrowne, J. Charles Darwin: voyaging 1995 Pimlico London 453.
    • 47Brent, op. cit. (note 37).Ospovat, D. The development of Darwin's theory: natural history, natural theology, and natural selection, 1838–1859 1981 Cambridge University Press.Gale, B. Evolution without evidence 1982 Harvester Brighton.Browne, J. The secular ark 1983 Yale University Press.Bowler, P. Evolution: history of an idea 1984 University of California Press.Smith, F. Charles Darwin's ill health. J. Hist. Biol. 23 1990 443-459.Wright, R. The moral animal 1994 Pantheon New York.Kohn, D. & Tauber, A. I. The aesthetic construction of Darwin's theory. in Elusive synthesis 1996 Kluwer Dordrecht 13-48.Jensen, H. S. Evolution of scientific knowledge 2003 Elgar, Northampton MA.
    • 48Greene, J. C. The death of Adam 1959 Iowa State University Press.Beer, G. de Charles Darwin 1963 Nelson London.Hopkins, R. S. Darwin's South America 1969 John Day New York.Eisley, L. Darwin and the mysterious Mr X 1979 Dent London.Durant, J. R. & Kohn, D. The ascent of Nature in Darwin's Descent of Man. in The Darwinian heritage 1985 Princeton University Press.Bowlby, J. Charles Darwin 1990 Norton London.Ruse, M. The evolution wars 2000 ABC-CLIO, Inc.Wyhe, J. van The writings of Charles Darwin on the web 2002http://pages.britishlibrary.net/charles.darwin.Stott, R. Darwin and the barnacle 2003 Faber London.Quammen, D. The reluctant Mr. Darwin 2006 Norton London.
    • 49Desmond& Moore op. cit xvi-239 .(note 31).
    • 50Desmond& Moore op. cit xv, xvi, 236, 273, 228, 231, 232-657.(note 31).
    • 51Desmond& Moore op. cit 292 (note 31) This interpretation is repeated in A. Desmond and J. R. Moore, Introduction to C. Darwin, Descent of man (Penguin, London, 2004) and A. Desmond, J. Browne and J. R. Moore, 'Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-1882)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004).
    • 52CCD 2:xvi.
    • 53Correspondence references: to G. R. Waterhouse [26 July 1843], CCD 2:375-376; to J. D.Hooker [11 Jan. 1844], CCD 3:1-3; to L. Jenyns 12 Oct. [1844], CCD 3:67-68; to E. Dieffenbach6 Apr. [1846], CCD 3:310; to E. Dieffenbach 9 Feb. [1847] CCD 4:12-13; to E. Cresy [May1848], CCD 4:135-136; to A. Gray 20 July [1857], CCD 6:431-433; to A. Gray 5 Sept. [1857],CCD 6:445-449 (this letter also mentions Falconer's criticism of Darwin's views inconversation); to E. L. Layard 9 Dec. 1855, CCD 5:524-525; to J. D. Dana 14 July [1856],CCD 6:180-181; to C. A. Murray 24 Dec. 1855, CCD 5:530-531; Wollaston CCD 6:91. Thereare further discussions of transmutation in CCD 2-7; see the introduction to CCD 3. Manuscript notes indicating conversation on transmutation, with date if known: Strickland, DAR 205.9.149; Falconer 20 Mar. 1844, DAR 209.5.187; 20 Apr. 1844, DAR 205.9.187; Falconer and Waterhouse, DAR 205.5.114 June 1845; Waterhouse, TAN55; H. Wedgwood E144; TAN51 and DAR 205.5.60; DAR 205.5.60 (Apr. 1843); E. Wedgwood E144; June 1840, DAR 205.5.30; Forbes, DAR 45.58 Dec. 1844 and possibly in DAR 205.9.185; DAR 205.5.103 and DAR 205.5.53; Lonsdale and Bunbury Feb. 1842, DAR 205.9.146; Lonsdale C175-177. See also Bunbury Diary entry for 23 Nov. 1845, recording a lunch with Darwin at the Horner's, in C. J. F. Bunbury, Middle life, vol. 1, p. 77 (1890-91); CCD 3:xiv, 237 n. 5.
    • 54Herbert, see Darwin to Hooker 28 Oct. [1845], CCD 3:261; Yarrell, Notebook C120 passim; Cuming 7 Feb. 1845, DAR 205.10.63; Lubbock 28 Nov. 1855, DAR 205.3.174.
    • 55CCD 3:xiv.
    • 56See Darwin to Hooker [10 Sept. 1845], CCD 3:252-253, quoted below. Nevertheless Darwin did tell Sedgwick that he believed the fossil record revealed a succession of types: '(Long before Owen published I had in M. S. worked out the succession of types in Old World.-) as I remember telling Sedgwick, who of course disbelieved it.)' To C. Lyell 27 [Dec. 1859], CCD 7:456.
    • 57To Hooker [11 Jan. 1844], CCD 3:2.
    • 58DAR 113. See S. Smith, 'Historical preface' in Barrett et al., op. cit. (note 18), p.1. On Norman see CCD 7:507.
    • 59Barlow op. cit. 81 (note 26).
    • 60Secord op. cit (note 40).
    • 61[24 Apr. 1845], CCD 3:181.
    • 62Darwin, C. Expression of the emotions 1872 Murray London 424.
    • 63Barlow op. cit. 123.(note 26).
    • 64Barrett . op. cit., et al. (note 18), C177.
    • 65See Hooker to Gray 21 Oct. 1858, quoted in Browne Darwin, Charles op. cit. 50 (note 46).
    • 66Herbert and Kohn refer to them as 'Private notebooks' in Introduction toBarrett op. cit., et al. 517.(note 18), p. 12. See also.
    • 67 DAR 205.9.116 n.d. See alsoBarrett op. cit., et al. (note 18), E137;.Darwin, C. On the origin of species 1859 Murray London 280.
    • 68Barrett op. cit., et al. (note 18), C175.
    • 69Barrett op. cit., et al. (note 18), C202; N19e; C123.
    • 70 I am grateful to David Kohn for this estimate of the length of the notebooks.
    • 71 See, for example, Darwin to Hooker [2 Oct. 1846], CCD 3:346.
    • 72Barlow op. cit.(note 26) 124.
    • 73Barlow op. cit.(note 26) 126-127;.132 referring to C. Darwin, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (2 volumes) (Murray, London, 1868) and Darwin, C. Insectivorous plants, 1875 Murray London.
    • 74 SeeHerbert, S. Charles Darwin as a prospective geological author. Br. J. Hist. Sci. 1991 24, 159-192 at p. 159.
    • 75To G. J. Romanes 5 Feb. 1880, in Darwin& Seward op. cit.(note 6) 2, 51.
    • 76Darwin, C. A biographical sketch of an infant. Mind ( July) 1877 285-294.
    • 77Darwin Variation, op. cit.(note 73).
    • 78Darwin, C. On the formation of mould. Trans. Geol. Soc. 1840 5, 505-509.;The formation of vegetable mould 1881 Murray London.
    • 79 CCD 2:xiv.
    • 80 To E. Wedgwood [27 Nov. 1838], CCD 2:129.
    • 81 DAR 158 f12.Darwin, C. The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle 1838-43 (5 volumes) Smith, Elder and Co. London.; Darwin, C. The structure and distribution of coral reefs 1842 Smith, Elder and Co. London.;Darwin, C. Geological observations on the volcanic islands 1844 Smith, Elder and Co. London.
    • 82DAR 158 f13.
    • 83DAR 158 f14.
    • 84To S. Darwin [15 May 1838], CCD 2:87.
    • 85DAR 158 f15.
    • 86Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 120 T. Malthus, Essay on the principle of population (Murray, London, 1826).
    • 87Browne Voyaging, op. cit. (note 46) 385.
    • 88 DAR 158 f17.
    • 89 To W. D. Fox [15 June 1838], CCD 2:92. See also letter to C. Lyell [14] Sept. [1838], CCD 2:107.
    • 90Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 99.
    • 91Browne, J. personal communication.
    • 92 To W. D. Fox [25 Jan. 1841], CCD 2:279.
    • 93Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 120.
    • 94 This view is shared by Smith, op. cit. (note 47). On how unfinished Darwin's notebook speculations end ca. July 1839 see Kohn ‘Introduction to Notebook E’ in Barrett et al., op. cit. (note 18) 396.
    • 95To E. Dieffenbach, 4 July [1843], CCD 7: 476-478. Darwin enclosed a questionnaire concerning differences between races or varieties and species, ‘as ‘Species’ is a subject, which I intend sometime to publish on.’ Darwin, Journal of researches 1839 Henry Colburn London. .
    • 96 To G. R. Waterhouse [26 July 1843], CCD 2:375-376.
    • 97 C. Darwin, ‘Brief description of several terrestrial Planariae’. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 14, 241-251 (1844), andDarwin, C. Observations on the structure and propagation of the genus Sagitta. Ann.Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844 13, 1-6.
    • 98 CCD 3:43.
    • 99 DAR 158 f22.
    • 100Darwin, C. A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia (2 volumes) 1851,1854 Ray Society London and Fossil Cirripedia of Great Britain (2 volumes) (Palaeontological Society, London, 1851, 1854).
    • 101 DAR 113. This was later published in Darwin, F. Foundations of the origin of species 1909 Cambridge University Press.
    • 102 To J. D. Hooker 13 June [1850], CCD 4:343.
    • 103Darwin, C.& Wallace, A. R. On the tendency of species to form varieties; and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural means of selection. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zoo. 1858 Aug 20 3, 45-62 at p. 45. This point was repeated in his autobiography (Barlow, op. cit. (note 26), p. 85).
    • 104 To A. R. Wallace 25 Jan. [1859], CCD 7:241.
    • 105Darwin, C. An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. Q. J.Geol. Soc. 1846 2, 26-30.
    • 106Darwin, C. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844 Oct. 14, 241-251. On the Planariae see Browne, Voyaging, op. cit. (note 46), pp. 215-217.
    • 107Smith Elder & Co., London (1846).
    • 108 To A. von Morlot 9 Aug. [1844], CCD 3:51.
    • 109 CCD 3:59.
    • 110 To L. Jenyns 25 [Nov. 1844], CCD 3:84-85.
    • 111 To L. Jenyns, 14 Feb. [1845], CCD 3:142-143, at p. 143.
    • 112Darwin, C. Journal of researches 2nd edn 1845 Murray London 52, 173, 380-393 passim.
    • 113Darwin, C. On certain areas of elevation and subsidence in the Pacific and Indian oceans, as deduced from the study of coral formations. Proc. Geol. Soc. 1837 Lond. 2, 552-554.
    • 114Gérard, F. De l'espèce dans les corps organisés.from& d'Orbigny, A. Dictionnaire universel d'histoire naturelle 1841-49 Paris 16 volumes.
    • 115 Hooker to Darwin [4-9 Sept. 1845], CCD 3:250.
    • 116 To J. D. Hooker, [10 Sept. 1845], Down CCD 3:252-253.
    • 117 To J. D. Hooker [18 Sept. 1845], CCD 3:255.
    • 118 [5 or 12 Nov. 1845], CCD 3:263-264.
    • 119 To L. Jenyns 10 Apr. [1837], CCD 2:15.
    • 120 CCD 3:337.
    • 121 To Henslow [5 Oct. 1846], CCD 3:350; to Fitzroy 1 Oct. 1846, CCD 3:344-345.
    • 122 CCD 4:xvii; CCD 2:xv.
    • 123Keynes, R. Charles Darwin's zoology notes and specimen lists from H. M. S. Beagle 2000 Cambridge University Press.
    • 124 [2 Oct. 1846], CCD 3:346.
    • 125 [M. Richmond], ‘Darwin's study of the Cirripedia’, CCD 4:388-409.
    • 126 To R. FitzRoy 28 Oct. [1846], CCD 3:359.
    • 127 To J. D. Hooker [6 Nov. 1846], CCD 3:363
    • 128 To R. Owen 25 Nov. [1846], CCD 3:372.
    • 129 To E. Dieffenbach 9 Feb. [1847], CCD 4:13.
    • 130 To J. D. Hooker 8 [Feb. 1847], CCD 4:10.
    • 131 To R. Owen [26 Mar. 1848], CCD 4:125; to J. D. Hooker 10 May 1848, CCD 4:138; to J. D. Hooker 28 Mar. 1849, CCD 4:227.
    • 132Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 117.
    • 133 For a more detailed account see CCD 4:xvii-iii. I am grateful to James Moore for discussing this shift with me in detail.
    • 134 From J. D. Hooker 20 Feb.-16 [Mar.] 1848, CCD 4:114.
    • 135 To J. D. Hooker 12 Oct. 1849, CCD 4:268.
    • 136 To J. L. R. Agassiz 22 Oct. 1848, CCD 4:178. For the sentence referred to see letter to J. E. Gray 18 Dec. 1847, CCD 4:99.
    • 137 See also the letter to E. Cresy [May 1848]. CCD 4:135, which states, ‘The Barnacles will put off my species book for a rather long period.’
    • 138 See alsoSloan, P. R. Darwin's invertebrate program, 1826-1836. in & Kohn, D. The Darwinian heritage 1985 Princeton University Press 71-120 and A. C. Love, ‘Darwin and Cirripedia prior to 1846, exploring the origins of the barnacle research’, J. Hist. Biol. 35, 251-289 (2002).
    • 139 9 Sept. 1854, DAR 158 f32.
    • 140 To J. D. Hooker 9 Apr. 1849, CCD 4:232.
    • 141 To J. D. Hooker 13 June [1850], CCD 4:343.
    • 142 To A. Hancock 25 Dec. [1850], CCD 4:378.
    • 143 To W. D. Fox 24 [Oct. 1852], CCD 5:99.
    • 144 To J. D. Hooker, [9 Oct. 1853], CCD 5:158-159.
    • 145 DAR 158 f32.
    • 146 See the useful summary in Ruse, op. cit. (note 3), pp. 186-188.
    • 147 Barlow, op. cit. (note 26), p. 118.
    • 148 To W. D. Fox 27 Mar. [1855], CCD 5:293. See also the relaxed style in Darwin to Waterhouse, CCD 2:375-377. The assertion that ‘to give all arguments & facts on both sides’ was a way of concealing the true aim of his work is quite unnecessary. It is simply another case of Darwin modestly avoiding the admission of how fundamentally revolutionary his work would be.
    • 149 DAR 158 f34.
    • 150Lyell, C. Principles of geology 1830–33 Murray London 3 volumes.
    • 151Stauffer, R. C. Charles Darwin's natural selection 1975 Cambridge University Press 10.
    • 152Darwin& Wallace op. cit. (note 103).
    • 153 Darwin's estimate on the first page of the Origin is that it would take 'two or three more years to complete it'; that is, by 1861-62. If we subtract the 13 months spent writing the Origin this would mean he could have published it in about 1860.
    • 154Stauffer op. cit. (note 151) xii.
    • 155 See Barlow, op. cit. (note 26), pp. 120-121. On Darwin's theory of divergence, see Browne, J. Darwin's botanical arithmetic and the principle of divergence, 1854–1858. J. Hist. Biol. 1980 13, 53-89 p. 13.; Ospovat op. cit.(note 47) 1981 146-209.; Schweber, S. . Darwin and the political economists. J. Hist. Biol. 1980 13, 195-289.;and Kohn, D. The Darwinian heritage 1985 Princeton University Press 245-263.
    • 156 Quoted in Richards, op. cit. (note 25), p. 52, and op. cit. (note 27).Darwin op. cit. (note 67) 236.
    • 157Ghiselin, op. cit. (note 14).;Stott op. cit. (note 48)..
    • 158Ospovat op. cit. (note 155). ; see also Browne, op. cit. (note 155), Hodge, J.& Kohn, D. The immediate origins of natural selection.in& Kohn op. cit. (note 155).; Kohn, D. Darwin's ambiguity. Br. J.Hist. Sci. 1989 22, 215-239.; and Schweber, op. cit. (note 155). See also Hodge, J. Darwin studies at work.in, Levere, T. H.& Shea, W. Nature, experiment 1990 Kluwer Dordrecht 249-274.
    • 159Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 83.
    • 160 26 Nov. [1859], CCD 7:403.
    • 161 23 Jan. 1860, CCD 8:46. See also W. Elwin to J. Murray 3 May 1859. CCD 7:289 and Bronn's remark in CCD 8:288.
    • 162 To C. Lyell 30 Sept. [1859], CCD 7:339.
    • 163 E. Darwin to C. Darwin c. Feb. 1839, CCD 2:171.
    • 164 To L. Jenyns 25 [Nov. 1844], CCD 4:85.
    • 165 See for example the following: to J. D. Hooker [10 Sept. 1845], CCD 3:353; to J. D. Hooker [2 Oct. 1846], CCD 3:346; to J. D. Hooker 9 Apr. 1849, CCD 4:233.
    • 166 To J. Phillips [7 or 14 Apr. 1848], CCD 4:131. The paper in question was Darwin, C. On the transportal of erratic boulders from a lower to a higher level. Q. J. Geol. Soc. 1848 Lond. 4, 315-323.
    • 167Jones, E. Free associations: memoirs of a psychoanalyst 1959 Basic Books New York 203-204.
    • 168 SeeDarwin, F. Reminiscences of my father's everyday life.in& Darwin, F. op. cit. (note 6) 1887 ed.;Litchfield, H. Emma Darwin: a century of family letters 1915 Murray London (2 volumes); and the many manuscript recollections of Darwin's friends and children in the Cambridge University Library Darwin Archive.
    • 169Barlow op. cit. (note 26) 130-131.
    • 170Darwin, C. The descent of man (2 volumes) 1871 Murray London 1, 1.
    • 171 Transcribed in Gruber, op. cit. (note 15) and Barrett et al., op. cit. (note 18).
    • 172Gruber. 1974 519; note that parts of Mand N notebooks go straight into Descent and Darwin, op. cit. (note 15).
    • 173Wallace, A. R. The Malay archipelago (2 volumes) 1869 Macmillan London 1.
    • 174 To E. Darwin 5 July 1844, CCD 3:44.
    • 175 To C. Lyell [25 June 1858], CCD 7:117; to J. D. Hooker 9 May [1856], CCD 6:106-107.
    • 176 Herschel to Lyell 20 Feb. 1836, later published inBabbage, C. Ninth Bridgewater treatise 2nd edn 1838 Murray London 226-227.
    • 177 Rudwick, op. cit. (note 17). See alsoCorsi, P. Science and religion 1988 Cambridge University Press.
    • 178Owen, R. On the nature of limbs 1849 Voorst London 86.