Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences

    Urban trees occupy a wide variety of habitats, from a single specimen competing in the urban jungle to extensive remnant or planted forest stands. Each is shown to produce distinct micro- to local scale climates contributing to the larger urban climate mosaic. These effects are discussed in relation to the radiative, aerodynamic, thermal and moisture properties of trees that so clearly set them apart from other urban materials and surfaces in terms of their exchanges of heat, mass and momentum with the atmosphere. Their resulting ability to produce shade, coolness, shelter, moisture and air filtration makes them flexible tools for environmental design.

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