Royal Society Open Science
Open AccessResearch article

Local interactions and global properties of wild, free-ranging stickleback shoals

Ashley J. W. Ward

Ashley J. W. Ward

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

[email protected]

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,
Timothy M. Schaerf

Timothy M. Schaerf

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, Australia

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,
James E. Herbert-Read

James E. Herbert-Read

Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Department of Biology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

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,
Lesley Morrell

Lesley Morrell

School of Biological, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, UK

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,
David J. T. Sumpter

David J. T. Sumpter

Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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and
Mike M. Webster

Mike M. Webster

School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK

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